Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.
Stay aware of the latest information on the COVID-19 outbreak, available on the WHO website and through your national and local public health authority. Most countries around the world have seen cases of COVID-19 and many are experiencing outbreaks. Authorities in China and some other countries have succeeded in slowing their outbreaks. However, the situation is unpredictable so check regularly for the latest news.
The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).
You can reduce your chances of being infected or spreading COVID-19 by taking some simple precautions:
- Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.
- Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and others. Why? When someone coughs, sneezes, or speaks they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person has the disease.
- Avoid going to crowded places. Why? Where people come together in crowds, you are more likely to come into close contact with someone that has COVID-19 and it is more difficult to maintain physical distance of 1 metre (3 feet).
- Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth. Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and infect you.
- Make sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately and wash your hands. Why? Droplets spread virus. By following good respiratory hygiene, you protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu and COVID-19.
- Stay home and self-isolate even with minor symptoms such as cough, headache, mild fever, until you recover. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house, wear a mask to avoid infecting others. Why? Avoiding contact with others will protect them from possible COVID-19 and other viruses.
- If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention, but call by telephone in advance if possible and follow the directions of your local health authority. Why? National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on the situation in your area. Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also protect you and help prevent spread of viruses and other infections.
- Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities. Why? Local and national authorities are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.
The world is in the midst of a COVID-19 pandemic. As WHO and partners work together on the response -- tracking the pandemic, advising on critical interventions, distributing vital medical supplies to those in need--- they are racing to develop and deploy safe and effective vaccines.
Vaccines save millions of lives each year. Vaccines work by training and preparing the body’s natural defences – the immune system – to recognize and fight off the viruses and bacteria they target. After vaccination, if the body is later exposed to those disease-causing germs, the body is immediately ready to destroy them, preventing illness.
As of 18 February 2021, at least seven different vaccines across three platforms have been rolled out in countries. Vulnerable populations in all countries are the highest priority for vaccination.
At the same time, more than 200 additional vaccine candidates are in development, of which more than 60 are in clinical development. COVAX is part of the ACT Accelerator, which WHO launched with partners in 2020. COVAX, the vaccines pillar of ACT Accelerator, convened by CEPI, Gavi and WHO, aims to end the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic by:
- speeding up the development of safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19;
- supporting the building of manufacturing capabilities; and
- working with governments and manufacturers to ensure fair and equitable allocation of the vaccines for all countries – the only global initiative to do so.
Vaccines are a critical new tool in the battle against COVID-19 and it is hugely encouraging to see so many vaccines proving successful and going into development. Working as quickly as they can, scientists from across the world are collaborating and innovating to bring us tests, treatments and vaccines that will collectively save lives and end this pandemic.
Safe and effective vaccines will be a gamechanger: but for the foreseeable future we must continue wearing masks, physically distancing and avoiding crowds. Being vaccinated does not mean that we can throw caution to the wind and put ourselves and others at risk, particularly because it is still not clear the degree to which the vaccines can protect not only against disease but also against infection and transmission
Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports from WHO :
- Vaccines Update from CCSA Thailand
- Between 28 February – 21 March 2021, 73,517 people in Thailand have been inoculated with the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.
- 800,000 doses of the Sinovac vaccine for the first phase arrived in Thailand on 20 March and will be distributed in 18 provinces, including 300,000 doses to prevent and control the disease, 200,000 doses to protect the public health system, and 300,000 doses to boost the economy at key tourist destinations.
- International Situation
- As of 22 March 2021, there were a total of 123,630,825 confirmed cases and 2,722,431 COVID-19 deaths. The 5 countries with the most confirmed COVID-19 cases include: the United States, Brazil, India, Russia, France
- The Disease Situation in Thailand latest updated on 22 March 2021
Risk Assessment of COVID-19 Situation
- Thailand Precautions
- Bangkok The COVID-19 active case finding free service at park area of the Mall Bang Khae was provided for people in 6 at-risk markets in Bang Khae and nearby areas, namely Sirisethanon Market (Saeng Fah Kao), Bang Khae Shopping Center Market, Kitti Market, Phasom Market, Bang Khae New Market and Wonder Market. As many people had come, the active screening service by the Royal Biosafety sample collection vehicle had been extended until March 26, 2021. In addition, the Institute of Urban Disease Prevention and Control (IUDC) had also joined and thus increased the sample swab collection service up to 1,000 at-risk people per day. People who visited or were involved with the at-risk markets from 20 February to 13 March 2021 were requested to register for the BKK COVID-19 screening system. Personal ID cards and smartphones will help speed up the registration process. The queuing card system starts from 07:30 a.m. The service period will be divided according to the queuing card numbers and the examination starts from 09:00 a.m. onwards. Regarding the area cleaning on 16 March 2021, Bang Khae District Office will provide cleaning services for all 6 markets from 09:00 a.m. onwards. The dry cleaning will be done in the morning and water and disinfectant flushing will be applied in the afternoon. In addition, all 6 markets will be closed for 3 days from 16 to 18 March 2021. After that there will be re-evaluation based on the active case screening of risk groups. If a large number of infected people are found, the market closure dates will be re-considered for extension.
- The Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Public Health said that on 20 March 2021 there will be another eight hundred thousand doses of Sinovac vaccine arriving in the country. Whereas the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO) had been authorized to order an additional five million doses of the vaccine to cover the target population which was planned to arrive in April and May 2021. The effort was done so that Thailand would have the vaccines for the immunization service before the domestic production of the AstraZeneca vaccine which had been planned to start in June 2021. For the progress on the registration of the COVID-19 vaccine of Johnson & Johnson company, it was expected to be completed by March 2021. However, the Bharat vaccine of India had not made progress due to incomplete documentation.
- The Secretary-General of the National Security Council (NSC), Chair of the Operation Center for COVID-19 Situation Administration (OCCSA), stated that the new cluster in Bang Khae area was only confined in the Bang Khae market and was not likely to spread out. As had been identified that the most of the fresh market clusters were among migrant workers who had insufficient awareness of the disease prevention. Therefore surveillance in fresh markets must be strengthened. However, he confirmed that there was no need to prohibit the worker movement as was done at the shrimp market in Samut Sakhon province. The measures will be the same model as Pornpat market, Pathum Thani province with a confidence that the Ministry of Public Health can control the situation with the cooperation of the people surrounding the area. However, on Wednesday 17 March 2021, there will be the Ad Hoc Committee meeting to consider the relaxing of COVID-19 prevention and control measures during the Songkran festival. The committee will determine and propose the measures to the CCSA for consideration on 19 March 2021.
- Prachuap Khiri Khan Hospital prepared to provide treatment and care for COVID-19 patients. The protocol would be that patients with mild symptoms were treated in the Cohort ward, a shared room that can accommodate 18 beds. Standard medical services and digital technology would be used to provide treatment care to the patients. There would be a closed-circuit to monitor the patient's symptoms and to communicate between healthcare providers and patients to reduce direct contact with the patients. Patients with severe illnesses would be treated in negative pressure rooms.
- Prachuap Khiri Khan province had arrested thirty-three Myanmar migrant workers for illegal border crossing into Thailand at the natural path near Dan Sing Khon Border Checkpoint. There were 4 migrants who were tested positive for COVID-19, and 200 involved officers and people were regarded as high risk contacts. The COVID-19 testing results were awaiting. The Mueang District has tightened its measures after there were a group of people smuggled goods from the Myanmar border. Moreover, there had also been smuggling of migrant workers.
The global COVID-19 pandemic situation has shown more than 120 million of cumulative confirmed cases. The daily confirmed cases have been slightly increase since mid-February 2021 but has still been below 500,000 cases per day. The number of deaths tends to decrease to below 10,000 deaths per day while the total deaths have been more than 2.6 million. In Thailand, there has been 22,768 confirmed cases in the new wave outbreaks. Two third of the cases were detected from active case finding and most were migrant workers. Currently, the number of daily confirmed cases has been decreasing to below 100 cases per day. Current COVID-19 clusters have been found in Bang Khae Market of which almost half of the Myanmar migrant workers. This indicates that crowded places like markets, where there are many migrant workers with the behavior of yelling or talking without wearing masks are still the risk of disease spreading as the previous clusters. Even though the COVID-19 vaccination has started, the overall disease prevention and control measures must be maintained for a long time. Therefore, people are requested for collaboration on disease prevention and control. They are advised to wear masks, wash hands frequently, avoid unnecessary travel especially to risk crowded places and scan “ ThaiChana” application or use “ MorChana application when traveling to places. In case of developing symptoms including coughing, sore throat, runny nose or loss of smell and taste, people are recommended to visit hospitals immediately and inform the doctors of their travelling history as much as possible.
Thailand COVID-19 situation update:
IC Actions: Preparedness and response plan to prevent infection in Bumrungrad hospitals
COVID-19 Travel Recommendations
- Preparedness for the outbreak situation with the relevant departments to establish COVID-19 command center since January 4, 2020 as well as review the work flow and emerging disease drill (called IC code)
- Review and communicate workflow in patient services to be safe both for patients and staff in a COVID-19 situation.
- Training and knowledge circulation for medical professionals and hospital staff.
- Facility: Negative Pressure room are available and ready to use. Designated area for high risk patient with symptoms of respiratory disease.
- Stockpile of personal protective equipment is sufficient and ready for use.
- Develop a hospital laboratory to support SARS-CoV-2 virus testing.
- IC team monitoring the outbreak global and nation situation closely cooperate with the Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health (MOPH). Set up and update screening form at entrances.
- Collaborate with the team to provide equipment to support safety measures and provide assurance to clients such as Xenex, EOS (Extra aerosol Oral Suction), LUCAS.
- Collaborate with the medical transport team to transfer patients and relatives from the international for treatment. Be a part of the team on setting up Alternative State Quarantine and Hospital State Quarantine.
: Moderate Level of COVID-19 in Thailand
Travel may increase your chances of getting and spreading COVID-19. Staying home is the best way to protect yourself and others from COVID-19. Airports, bus stations, train stations, and rest stops are all places travelers can be exposed to the virus. These are also places where it can be hard to social distance. If you travel, take steps before, during, and after travel to keep yourself and others from getting COVID-19.
Key Information for Travelers to Thailand
- Before you travel, get tested with a viral test 1–3 days before your trip. Do not travel if you are waiting for test results, test positive, or are sick. Follow all entry requirements for your destination and provide any required or requested health information.
If you are eligible, get fully vaccinated for COVID-19
. Wait 2 weeks after getting your second vaccine dose to travel—it takes time for your body to build protection after any vaccination.
Update Information for Travelers to Thailand :
- During travel, wear a mask, stay at least 6 feet from people who are not traveling with you, wash your hands often or use hand sanitizer, and watch your health for signs of illness.
- Before traveling back get tested with a viral test no more than 3 days before your flight departs. The test result must be negative. Follow all destination and airline recommendations or requirements.
- After you travel, continue to take steps to protect others from getting sick. Wear a mask when outside your home, stay at least 6 feet from people who are not from your household, wash your hands often or use hand sanitizer, and watch your health for signs of illness.
- If you participated in higher-risk activities (weddings, concerts, airports, cruise ship, etc.) get tested 3–5 days after travel AND stay home for 7 days after travel.
- If you don't get tested, it's safest to stay home for 10 days.
- If you had a known exposure to COVID-19 while traveling, delay travel, quarantine from other people, get tested, and monitor your health.
- Always follow state and local recommendations or requirements related to travel.
- Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health Suggest people to adhere to the principle of “eat freshly-cooked and clean food" to prevent food and water contagious diseases, including diarrhea and food poisoning. When having severe abdominal pain, liquid stools or bloody mucus, thirsty than usual should to see a doctor quickly. On 22 February 2021,Dr. Opas Karnkawinpong Director-General of the Department of Disease Control said that during this period, the temperature of Thailand began to rise May increase the risk of developing food and waterborne diseases, including diarrhea and food poisoning, Department of Disease Control recommends that people eat freshly cooked food. Foods that are stored for more than 2 hours should be warmed thoroughly before eating. Choose drinking water, ice that is clean and standardized. Wash ingredients thoroughly before using them for cooking. To reduce the risk of contamination of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasites, which can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stools, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In some severe cases, dehydration occurs such as dry throat, dry mouth, less urine output causing shock and even death.
For manufacturer, they must maintain their health and cook food in a hygienic manner, such as washing their hands thoroughly before preparing and cooking food, washing materials, utensils and equipment thoroughly. Wear a cloth mask or medical mask. Wear a hood Not working while sick to prevent contamination of food and water pathogens to consumers. First aid For patients, sip water and mineral water (ORS) frequently to prevent dehydration and should eat soft food. If symptoms do not improve to immediately see a doctor. To use antibiotics should be in the care of a doctor.
National & International Contagious Disease Updated Week 11, 2021 : 13 – 19 March, 2021 with the following details :
1. Global situation (Ref: World Health Organization)
- MERS-CoV :Summary of MERS Situation latest updated on 17 March 2021
- United Arab Emirates-The case is a 39-year-old male national, owner of a camel farm. He developed fever and cough on 18 January and tested positive for MERS-CoV on 31 January. The first MERS-CoV case in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was reported in July 2013. Since then, a total of 92 cases of MERS-CoV (including the above case) and 12 associated deaths have been reported in the United Arab Emirates.
- Between 1 June through 31 December 2020, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported four additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) with one associated death. The cases were reported from Riyadh (two cases), Taif (one case), and Al-Ahsaa (one case) Regions.
- At a global level, from 2012 until 2 February 2021, the total number of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection cases reported globally to WHO is 2567 with 882 associated deaths.Most of the cases have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
- Ebola :Summary of Ebola Situation latest updated on 17 Feb 2021
- Ebola virus disease – Guinea : On 14 February 2021, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Guinea informed WHO of a cluster of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) cases in the sub-prefecture of Gouécké, Nzérékoré Region, Guinea between 18 January and 13 February 2021. The cases showed symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting and bleeding after attending the burial of another relative (a 51 year-old nurse) on 1 February 2021.
- The index case of the cluster was a nurse who had originally presented at a health centre in Gouécké on 18 January 2021 with headache, physical weakness, nausea, vomiting, and fever. She died on 28 January 2021. The other six cases are the five family members and the traditional practitioner she visited. As of 15 February, one hundred and ninety-two (192) contacts have been identified. Therefore, there is concern about the exportation of EVD cases into the neighboring countries.
- Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo : On 7 February 2021, the Minister of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared an outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) after the laboratory confirmation of one case in North Kivu Province. A total of 117 contacts has been identified and are under follow up. Investigations and response activities are ongoing.
2. National Situation (Ref: Department of Disease Control Ministry of Public Health)
- The United Arab Emirates: (Update 17 Mar 2020) Abu Dhabi
- Saudi Arabia : (Update 1 Feb 2021) Riyadh, Taif, Al-Ahsaa
- The United Arab Emirates: (Update 13 Jan 2020) Abu Dhabi
- Qatar (Update 18 Feb 2020)
|Ebola Virus Disease
- Guinea (Update 17 Feb 2021)
- Democratic Republic of the Congo : (Update 10 Feb 2021)
- Democratic Republic of the Congo : (Update 6 May 2020)
- Maxico (Update 21 April 2020)
- France (Update 23 April 2020)
- Chile (Update 7 Feb 20)
- Senegal (Update 29 Dec 2020)
- Guinea (Update 23 Dec 2020)
- France (Update 1 Aug 2020)
- Gabon ( Update 17 Jun 2020)
- Democratic Republic of the Congo (Update 1 May 19)
- Nepal (H5N1)
- Chinese Taipei (H5N2) (Update 27 Jun 19 no new case of Human Infection)
- Democratic Republic of the Congo : (Update 23 July 2020)
|Rift Valley fever
- Kenya ( Update 12 Feb 2021)
||Reported case From 1 Jan – 16 Mar, 2021: 131,077 cases.
Top 5 Province
- Amnat Charoen
- Chiang Rai
- Roi Et
||Reported case From 1 Jan – 15 Mar, 2021: 32,854 cases. with 40 deaths.
Top 5 Province
- Khon Kaen
- Ubon Ratchathani
- Sri Sa Ket
- Chiang Rai
|Influenza A (H1N1, H3N2)
||Reported case From 1 Jan – 15 Mar, 2021: 3,981 cases.
Top 5 Province
- Ubon Ratchathani
- Phang Nga
|Hand foot mouth
||Reported case From 1 Jan – 15 Mar, 2021: 7,863 cases.
Top 5 Provinces
- Chiang Rai
- Mae Hong Son
||Reported case From 1 – 15 Mar, 2021: 1779 cases.
Top 5 Province
- Mae Hong Son
- Chon Buri