Knee Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis of the knee is usually caused by the use of the knee joint for a long time (Primary OA knee), so it is mainly found in the elderly. The long-term use causes the cartilage of the knee joint to wear away over time. With the thinning cartilage, the knee joints rub each other closely, causing severe pain. Other conditions that can cause premature osteoarthritis include the following:
• Fracture around the knee, post-traumatic arthritis
• Septic arthritis of knee joints
• Arthritis of various types such as rheumatoid arthritis

Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee
The symptoms of osteoarthritis are pain and discomfort in the knee. Initially, pain is often in the back and the inner side of the knee.

The pain is related to the use of the knee joint such as when walking or exercising, with decreased ability to move the knee and stiffness. The knee bone is often in a tilted angle, causing the knee to bend outward and inward in some patients. (Picture: bowed knees) In addition, it is often more difficult than usual for patients to do some daily activities such as walking up and down the stairs, or getting up after sitting. In those with inflammation of the knee joint, the affected portion of the knee might feel warm, tender, and swollen. In severe cases, patients may have swollen knees and small fluid-filled sac near the knee joint.
The doctor will assess the degeneration severity of the knee using radiographs or MRI to determine the degree of the wearing away of the cartilage. 
Treatment for osteoarthritis in the knee depends on the severity of the degeneration. In mild or early cases, conservative approaches including medication, physical therapy, and hyaluronic acid injections and platelet rich plasma injections usually work quite well. On the other hand, severe deterioration mostly requires surgical treatment, be it realignment surgery for bow knee patients, partial knee replacement, and total knee replacement for severe cases where surgery is the last resort.

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