Female Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability of a married couple, particularly women under 35 years of age, to conceive children after engaging in regular unprotected sexual intercourse for a minimum of 12 months. For couples over 35 years old, infertility is diagnosed if they are unable to conceive after six months of regular unprotected intercourse.

Causes of Female Infertility
1. Hormonal imbalances affecting ovulation, including:
  • Elevated prolactin levels (Hyperprolactinemia)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Chronic anovulation

2. Abnormalities in the fallopian tubes, such as:
  • Endometriosis
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Pelvic adhesions
  • Edema in the fallopian tubes (Hydrosalpinx)

3. Uterine abnormalities, including:
  • Uterine polyps
  • Uterine adhesions (Asherman's syndrome)
  • Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas or fibromyomas)

4. Decline in ovarian function (Ovarian Reserve):
  • -Genetic conditions like fragile X chromosome syndrome
  • -Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation

5. Age-related decline in egg quantity and quality

The diagnosis of infertility typically starts with a comprehensive review of the patient's medical history and a thorough physical examination. Blood tests may be conducted to assess hormone levels and detect any underlying diseases. Additional diagnostic procedures may include:
  • Ultrasound examination to assess the reproductive organs.
  • Evaluation of ovarian reserve to determine egg quantity and quality.
  • Hysterosalpingography, involving the injection of dye to examine the fallopian tubes and uterus.
  • Hysteroscopy, a procedure to visually examine the inside of the uterus.
  • Laparoscopy, an endoscopic examination of the abdomen to assess pelvic organs.
Treatment for infertility varies depending on the underlying cause identified. Doctors aim to provide interventions that facilitate the most natural conception possible. However, in cases where the cause persists despite treatment, some couples may resort to assisted reproductive technology (ART) to achieve pregnancy.
Treatment options for infertility may include:
  • Medications to stimulate ovarian function (ovarian stimulation).
  • Surgical interventions to address gynecological issues such as uterine polyps, uterine tumors, or blocked fallopian tubes.
  • Assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization (IVF).
  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI), which involves the injection of sperm directly into the uterus.
  • Each treatment approach is tailored to the specific needs and circumstances of the individual or couple experiencing infertility.


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