Hemorrhoidectomy is the surgical removal of enlarged veins in the lower rectum and anus (hemorrhoids).

Hemorrhoids (piles) are vascular structures in the anal canal. Normal state, they are cushions that help with stool control and protect anal sphincter. They become a disease when swollen or inflamed.
  • Internal - they are inside the anus (the opening to the back passage), usually present with bright red rectal bleeding.
  • External - they are outside the anus and cause lumps to protrude through the anus. The symptoms are pain and swelling in the anal area.
  1. In an excisional hemorrhoidectomy, the hemorrhoid is excised or cut away and the wound is stitched closed, or left open.
  2. In a stapled hemorrhoidopexy, only a portion of the hemorrhoid is removed and the remaining is put back into the anal canal and stapled into place. This procedure usually causes less postoperative pain, but is not effective for large external hemorrhoids. With this procedure there is also a higher chance of recurrence and post-operative bleeding.
The main benefits are the relief of pain, bleeding, discharge and itching caused by hemorrhoids. The recurrence rate is low.
The success of the procedure depends on a number of factors. Please discuss the likelihood of success with your doctor before the procedure.
 What if this procedure is not performed?
Hemorrhoids can drop down outside the anal canal and strangulate (obstruct) causing pain, leakage of mucus, inflammation and irritation of the skin around the anus. Untreated hemorrhoids can also bleed, so you could become anemic.
Sometimes hemorrhoids disappear without treatment and often they can be relieved by the warm sitz bath. It is important to keep stool soft through a diet rich in fiber. Drink plenty of water and use stool softeners if needed as correcting constipation can improve or prevent hemorrhoids.

Non-surgical treatment options include rubber band ligation, sclerotherapy, infrared photocoagulation and bipolar coagulation.

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