In the past, conventional spinal surgery was performed and began around the early 1900s. This follows the use of general anesthesia, emerging of an x-ray machine and has a better antibiotics. The first conventional discectomy was performed and recorded in 1932. The first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in 1977, which can study the structures inside the spine, including nerves and spinal cord. Surgery in the past is very different from the present.