Refractive Errors

The 4 common eye conditions are myopia (nearsightedness), farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia, which all can all be treated through various types of lasers.

Eye Conditions and Their Treatment Methods (VDO):


Nearsightedness (myopia)

Nearsightedness (myopia) is a common vision condition in which objects up close appear clear and distant objects appear blurry. Nearsightedness is due to a refractive error that causes light to focus in front of the retina instead of on it.

Nearsightedness can be corrected by:

  • Eyeglasses; eyeglasses are made with concave lenses that diffuse light. They help correct shortsightedness.
  • Contact lenses; contact lenses require specific care and cleaning to prevent corneal infection. Also, wearing contact lenses for an extended periods of time, can over time, cause skin cell deterioration, as well as dry eyes and allergic conjunctivitis. For some, chronic eye issues will result in the person no longer being able to wear contact lenses.

Permanently Fixing Nearsightedness

Nearsightedness can be fixed through vision correction surgery. There are 3 types of laser eye surgery for nearsightedness: ReLEx SMILE, Femto LASIK, and PRK.

Prevention of Nearsightedness

  • Modify lifestyle behaviors to reduce the risk factors. For example, reduce near work activities such as watching TV, playing video games, and reading and increase outdoor activities for about 2 hours a day, such as playing sports, walking outside.
  • ​When performing near work activities such as reading, hold the book or tablet at least one upper arm’s length away from your eyes.
  • Rest your eyes frequently when doing near work activities such as doing homework or using your cell phone or computer. Follow the 20/20/20 rule: every 20 minutes, rest your eyes by looking about 20 feet away for 20 seconds.


Farsightedness (hyperopia) is the vision condition in which objects up close appear blurry and distant objects appear clear. Farsightedness is due to the person’s eyeball being shorter than normal or if their cornea is curved too little.  

Non-Permanent Treatment

  • Eyeglasses; strong frames and lenses will protect your eyes from accidents
  • ​Contact lenses

Permanently Fixing Farsightedness

Farsightedness can be fixed through vision correction surgery. There are 2 types of laser eye surgery for farsightedness: Femto LASIK and PRK.

Prevention of Farsightedness

Congenital farsightedness cannot be prevented but it can be detected early. Parents should take their child to see an ophthalmologist for an eye examination. People with congenital farsightedness are at risk for other eye conditions such as cataracts, so it’s important to have annual eye exams.

Astigmatism is a type of refractive error that causes blurry eyesight whether looking near or far. The cause of astigmatism is due to the person’s cornea or lens being more curved than normal. This affects how light refracts to the retina, resulting in blurry and distorted vision.  Astigmatism can occur in conjunction with nearsightedness or farsightedness.

Non-Permanent Treatment

  • Cylindrical lens eyeglasses
  • ​Contact lenses, specifically for astigmatism

Permanently Fixing Astigmatism

Astigmatism can be fixed through vision correction surgery. There are 3 types of laser eye surgery for nearsightedness and astigmatism: ReLEx SMILE, FemtoLASIK, and PRK.

Prevention of Astigmatism

Unfortunately, astigmatism cannot be prevented, but taking good care of your eyes reduces the risk of it becoming more severe in the future:

  • Good, adequate lighting will help with maintaining good eye health 
  • Avoid prolonged use of the eyes; such activities include using a computer, watching TV, reading a book. Make sure to rest your eyes periodically
  • Avoid rubbing your eyes to prevent damage to the cornea
  • Eat foods that nourish your eyesight, meaning foods that contain vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, lutein, Zeaxanthin, such as green leafy vegetables and fruit

Related Treatments

Doctors Related

Related Centers

Eye Center

Learn more

Related Packages

Rating score NaN of 10, based on 0 vote(s)

Related Health Blogs