Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are pathogenic fungi that are acquired by inhalation and can spread to other organ systems (particularly the brain and meninges). C neoformans is considered an opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. It is the AIDS-defining illness in up to 50% of AIDS patients. C gattii infections are relatively rare but appear to be increasing. C gattii can also cause disease in the immunocompetent, particularly in persons with underlying health conditions. Mortality from cryptococcal meningitis is high, ranging from 10% to nearly 50% in immunocompromised patients.