Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the causative infectious agent for a variety of diseases in men: urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, epididymitis and Reiter’s Syndrome. Among women, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated. Since approximately half of these infections are asymptomatic, many cases go undetected and untreated, leading to additional problems, particularly with pregnant women. In addition, re-infections are frequent if the sex partners are not treated. CT infection can cause urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, endometritis, salpingitis (with subsequent infertility or ectopic pregnancy) and perihepatitis. Infants from infected mothers can develop conjunctivitis, pharyngitis and pneumonia.
Clinical manifestations of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are numerous. In men, acute urethritis presents itself after a 1-10 day incubation period with urethral discharge and dysuria. Only a small proportion of men remain asymptomatic without signs of urethritis. Acute epididymitis is the most common complication, especially in young men. In women, the primary site of infection is the endocervix. There is a high prevalence of co-infections with CT, Trichomonas vaginalis, and bacterial vaginosis; many women remain asymptomatic and therefore do not seek medical care. The predominant symptoms are increased discharge, dysuria, and intermenstrual bleeding. Pelvic inflammatory disease can occur in 10%-20% of women, combined with endometritis, salpingitis, tubo ovarian abscess, pelvic peritonitis, and perihepatitis. Other gonococcal infected sites are the rectum, pharynx, conjunctiva, and to a lesser degree the disease presents itself as disseminated gonococcal infection. Infants from infected mothers can develop conjunctivitis.