Physical reconstruction surgery – female to male


Facial masculinization surgery

This surgery reshapes bones and soft tissues so that the face appears more masculine.

The surgeon will consider the proportional balance of the face and facial tissues prior to surgery. The reconstructive surgery may be a single procedure or multi-staged concerning the following six facial features:

  • Forehead Lengthening & Augmentation Surgery
    This aims to get a wider forehead, thick but not bushy eyebrows, restructuring the frontal bone and the frontal sinus while lifting the hairline to increase the space between the frontal bone and the hairline.
  • Masculine cheekbone surgery  
    As male cheekbones are flatter, wider and more angular than female ones, masculinizing cheekbone surgery may thus involve shaving, augmenting, or reducing depending on the underlying bone structure.
  • Rhinoplasty (for a masculine nose)
    A surgery to achieve a larger and wider nasal bridge more like amasculine nose
  • Masculine Genitoplasty/Mentoplasty 
    A chin contouring surgery to achieve a more masculine chin
  • Jaw augmentation (Masculine Jaw Surgery)
    This aims to achieve a stronger, thicker, more chiseled jawline, involving jaw augmentation, contouring, balancing it with facial width while integrating this with chin augmentation and contouring for balance.
  • Adam's apple implant (Tracheal Augmentation)

Voice masculinization therapy and voice masculinization surgery

With the vocal fold surgery the patient will get a lower vocal pitch and a bigger voice. With an endoscopic surgery, the surgeon, an ENT specialist, will shorten the vocal cords considering the three main factors affecting the vocal pitch:

  • Vocal cord length
  • Vocal cord tension
  • Vocal cord masses

Breast surgery (male chest contouring: subcutaneous mastectomy/breast removal)

This is a surgical removal of all breast tissues while leaving certain fatty tissues to prevent skin unevenness after surgery. Three techniques of masculinizing chest reconstruction surgery are available depending on the size and amount of breast tissues and an individual surgeon’s preferred technique:

  1. With U-shaped incision
  2. With O-shaped incision
  3. With double incision, with nipple grafts
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