Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer and its precursor cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The presence of HPV has been implicated in greater than 99% of cervical cancers, worldwide. HPV is a small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, with a genome of approximately 8000 nucleotides. There are more than 118 different types of HPV and approximately 40 different HPVs that can infect the human anogenital mucosa. However, data suggest that 14 of these types (HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68) are considered high risk (HR) for the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. Furthermore, HPV types 16 and 18 have been regarded as the genotypes most closely associated with progression to cervical cancer. HPV-16 is the most carcinogenic and is associated with approximately 60% of all cervical cancers, while HPV-18 accounts for approximately 10% to 15% of cervical cancers.