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Test Code:
LEAD

Order Name:
Lead (Blood)

 
Useful For:
  • Detection of acute or very recent Lead exposure
  • Monitoring the effectiveness of therapy
 
Methodology:
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
 
AliasesName:
Pb (Lead), Blood
 
 
 
Test Code:
LEAD

Order Name:
Lead (Blood)

 
Collection Specimen Or Container:
Blood/ K2EDTA (Royal blue-top) 6 mL, 1 tube  
 
Specimen Testing Type:
K2EDTA Whole blood, minimun 5 mL 
 
Sub Mission Container:
Plastic vial(PP Grade)
 
Rejection Criteria:
Hemolyse: 1+ reject
 
Specimen Stabillity:
Specimen Type Temperature Time
K2EDTA blood (keep in original tube) Refrigerated, 2oC to 8oC 14 days
 
 
 
Test Code:
LEAD

Order Name:
Lead (Blood)

 
Method detail:
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
 
Schedule:
Tested on Tuesday and Friday at 7.00 a.m.
 
Turnaround Time:
Result reporting within Wednesday or Saturday, before 3.00 p.m.
 
Performing Location:
Chemistry, Laboratory Department Tel. 13224
 
Specimen Retention Time:
1 month
 
 
 
Test Code:
LEAD

Order Name:
Lead (Blood)

 
 
Clinical Information:
Lead has atomic number 82 (symbol Pb) and is one of the heavy metals. Lead is a persistent metal and because of its unusual physical–chemical properties it is used in various industrial applications (Brannvall et al., 1999). Well known is its use as a radiation shield. Lead is a toxic metal to humans and animals and its persistency causes prolonged occurrence in the environment – in water, soil, dust and in manufactured products containing lead.

Since young organisms bear the heaviest burden of sensitivity to lead exposure, lead-based paint covers represent a serious health threat to children worldwide (Kumar and Clark, 2009). Soil containing lead also represent a serious hazard for children.
 
 
Reference Value:
Non exposed: < 15 µg/dL
Maximum exposed: < 40 µg/dL
 
Interpretation:
Similar to other persistent toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury, lead damages cellular components via elevated (80 K. Jomova, M. Valko / Toxicology 283 (2011) 65–87) levels of oxidative stress. The pathogenetic effect of lead is multifactorial since it directly interrupts the activity of enzymes, competitively inhibits absorption of important trace minerals and deactivates antioxidant sulphydryl pools (Patrick, 2006b). Gastrointestinal absorption of lead is higher in children (40–50%) than in adults (3–10%). Lead toxicity is most commonly diagnosed through elevated blood levels. Blood levels of 10 g/dL (equivalent to 0.48 mol/L) or higher are considered toxic and result in neurological disorders, cognitive impairments, hypertension and other disorders (Patrick, 2006a).
 
Clinical Reference:
  1. แสงโฉม เกิดคล้าย, บรรณาธิการ. แนวทางการวินิจฉัยเพื่อการรายงานโรคจากการประกอบอาชีพและ สิ่งแวดล้อม. พิมพ์ครั้งที่1. สำนักระบาดวิทยา กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข. สิงหาคม 2547:หน้า 22-33
  2. NCCLS document C38-A, Control of Pre analytical Variation in trace Element Determinations; Approved Guideline, 1997
  3. Biomarker Testing of Industrial Chemicals; Version 2018
  4. www.Thaitox.com
  5. The handbook of Environmental Chemistry Volume 3 Part A, Handbook on the toxicology of metals. Volume I., Ärztlicher Befundbericht, IMD Institut für Medizinische Diagnostik Berlin-Potsdam GbR, Nicolaistraße 22 - 12247 Berlin (Steglitz).
  6. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com (Retrieved: 01 Jan 2019)
  7. K. Jomova, M. Valko, Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease, Toxicology 283 (2011) 65–87