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Order Name:
Cobalt (Urine)

 
Useful For:
  1. Detecting cobalt exposure
  2. Monitoring metallic prosthetic implant wear
 
Methodology:
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
 
AliasesName:
Co (Cobalt), Urine
 
 
Order Name:
Cobalt (Urine)

 
Collection Specimen Or Container:
Urine, Clean container 
 
Specimen Testing Type:
Urine, minimum volume 10 mL
 
Sub Mission Container:
Clean container
 
Specimen Stabillity:
Specimen Type Temperature Time
Urine Refrigerated, 2oC to 8oC 14 days
 
 
Order Name:
Cobalt (Urine)

 
Method detail:
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
 
Schedule:
Tested on Tuesday and Friday at 7.00 a.m.
 
Turnaround Time:
Result reporting within Wednesday or Saturday, before 3.00 p.m.
 
Performing Location:
Chemistry, Laboratory Department Tel. 13224
 
Specimen Retention Time:
1 month
 
 
Order Name:
Cobalt (Urine)

 
 
Clinical Information:
Cobalt forms a number of organic and inorganic salts with the most stable oxidation numbers being +3 [Co(III)],  and +2 [Co(II)]. Cobalt is an element that occurs naturally in many different chemical forms throughout our environment (Lison et al., 2001).Vitamin B12 contains 4% cobalt which confirms that this element is essential to man (Kim et al., 2008). Experimental studies confirmed that cobalt can not only interfere with DNA repair processes but can also cause direct induction of DNA damage
 
Reference Value:
0 – 14.99  µg/L
 
Interpretation:
The toxicity of cobalt is relatively low compared to many other metals (Gal et al., 2008). Its toxic effect in higher concentrations affects mainly the lungs, leading to asthma, pneumonia and wheezing. Overdosing of cobalt (>5 mg/day) may lead to abnormal thyroid functions, polycythemia and overproduction of red blood cells
(erythropoiesis), with increased production of the hormone erythropoietin. There is also a risk of pulmonary edema, peripheral vascular thrombosis, optic nerve atrophy. Intranasal use of vitamin B12 includes symptoms such as headache, sore throat and rhinitis.
 
Clinical Reference:
  1. แสงโฉม เกิดคล้าย, บรรณาธิการ. แนวทางการวินิจฉัยเพื่อการรายงานโรคจากการประกอบอาชีพและ สิ่งแวดล้อม. พิมพ์ครั้งที่1. สำนักระบาดวิทยา กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข. สิงหาคม 2547:หน้า 22-33
  2. NCCLS document C38-A, Control of Pre analytical Variation in trace Element Determinations; Approved Guideline, 1997
  3. Biomarker Testing of Industrial Chemicals; Version 2018
  4. www.Thaitox.com
  5. The handbook of Environmental Chemistry Volume 3 Part A, Handbook on the toxicology of metals. Volume I., Ärztlicher Befundbericht, IMD Institut für Medizinische Diagnostik Berlin-Potsdam GbR, Nicolaistraße 22 - 12247 Berlin (Steglitz).
  6. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com (Retrieved: 01 Jan 2019)
  7. K. Jomova, M. Valko, Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease, Toxicology 283 (2011) 65–87