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Clear
 
Test Code:
CROU

Order Name:
Chromium (Urine)

 
Useful For:
Screening for occupational exposure to chromium

Monitoring metallic prosthetic implant wear
 
Methodology:
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
 
AliasesName:
Cr (Chromium), Urine
 
 
 
Test Code:
CROU

Order Name:
Chromium (Urine)

 
Collection Specimen Or Container:
Urine, Clean container
 
Specimen Testing Type:
Urine, minimum volume 10 mL
 
Sub Mission Container:
Clean container
 
Specimen Stabillity:
Specimen Type Temperature Time
Random urine Refrigerated, 2oC to 8oC 14 days
 
 
 
Test Code:
CROU

Order Name:
Chromium (Urine)

 
Method detail:
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
 
Schedule:
Tested on Tuesday and Friday at 7.00 a.m.
 
Turnaround Time:
Result reporting within Wednesday or Saturday, before 3.00 p.m.
 
Performing Location:
Chemistry, Laboratory Department Tel. 13224
 
Specimen Retention Time:
1 month
 
 
 
Test Code:
CROU

Order Name:
Chromium (Urine)

 
 
Clinical Information:
Chromium, one of the most common elements in the earth’s exists in several oxidation states (Cieslak-Golonka, 1996). The most important stable states are 0 (elemental metal), +III (trivalent), and +VI (hexavalent). The health effects and toxicity/carcinogenicity of chromium are primarily related to the oxidation state of the metal at the time of exposure. Trivalent (Cr[III]) and hexavalent (Cr[VI]) compounds are thought to be the most biologically significant (US Department of Health, 1993).
 
Reference Value:
< 1 µg/g creatinine
 
Interpretation:
Chromium(VI) at high doses is considered to be the greatest health risk (Keegan et al., 2008). Cr(VI) enters the body by all three of routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion or absorption through the skin.Breathing high levels of chromium(VI) can cause irritation to the nasal cavity, breathing difficulty (asthma and cough). Skin contact with certain chromium(VI) compounds can cause skin ulcers. Allergic symptoms such as redness and swelling of the skin have been reported following contacts with chromium compounds.
Hexavalent chromium is recognized as a human carcinogen via inhalation and known to cause lung cancer in humans (Quievryn et al., 2002). Deficiency of chromium has been associated with disturbed glucose tolerance, fasting hyperglycemia, glucosuria, increased body fat, dyslipidemia and impaired fertility (De Flora et al., 1995).
 
Clinical Reference:
  1. แสงโฉม เกิดคล้าย, บรรณาธิการ. แนวทางการวินิจฉัยเพื่อการรายงานโรคจากการประกอบอาชีพและ สิ่งแวดล้อม. พิมพ์ครั้งที่1. สำนักระบาดวิทยา กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข. สิงหาคม 2547:หน้า 22-33
  2. NCCLS document C38-A, Control of Pre analytical Variation in trace Element Determinations; Approved Guideline, 1997
  3. Biomarker Testing of Industrial Chemicals; Version 2018
  4. www.Thaitox.com
  5. The handbook of Environmental Chemistry Volume 3 Part A, Handbook on the toxicology of metals. Volume I., Ärztlicher Befundbericht, IMD Institut für Medizinische Diagnostik Berlin-Potsdam GbR, Nicolaistraße 22 - 12247 Berlin (Steglitz).
  6. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com (Retrieved: 01 Jan 2019)
  7. K. Jomova, M. Valko, Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease, Toxicology 283 (2011) 65–87