Cadmium is a heavy metal and the most common oxidation number of cadmium is +2. Food is the main source of cadmium for the non-smoking population (Cuypers et al., 2010). Estimates of dietary cadmium intake worldwide range from 10–40 g/day in nonpolluted areas to several hundred micrograms in cadmiumpolluted regions.
Cadmium is a potent human carcinogen causing preferentially prostate, lung and gastro-intestinal (kidney and pancreas) cancers. Smoking synergistically increases the carcinogenic effect of cadmium (Flora et al., 2008; Flora and Pachauri, 2010).