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Test Code:
ALP

Order Name:
Alk. Phosphatase

 
Useful For:
Diagnosing and monitoring treatment of liver, bone, intestinal, and parathyroid diseases
 
Methodology:
Para-nitrophenyl Phosphate
 
AliasesName:
ALP
Alkaline phosphatase
 
 
 
Test Code:
ALP

Order Name:
Alk. Phosphatase

 
Collection Specimen Or Container:
Blood/ Plain blood (Red top) 6 mL, 1 tube
 
Specimen Testing Type:
Serum, minimum volume 0.5 mL
 
Sub Mission Container:
Plastic vial
 
Rejection Criteria:
Hemolysis: 4+ reject

 
 
Specimen Stabillity:
Specimen Type Temperature Time
Serum Refrigerated, 2oC to 8oC 7 days
Frozen, -20oC 2 months
 
 
 
Test Code:
ALP

Order Name:
Alk. Phosphatase

 
Method detail:
Para-nitrophenyl Phosphate
 
Schedule:
Tested daily (24 hours)
 
Turnaround Time:
Collected specimen to report within 1.5 hours (90 mins)
 
Performing Location:
Chemistry, Laboratory Department Tel. 13224
 
Specimen Retention Time:
5 days
 
 
 
Test Code:
ALP

Order Name:
Alk. Phosphatase

 
 
Clinical Information:
Human alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, EC.3.1.3.1) consists of a group of at least five tissue-specific isoenzymes which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate mono-esters at alkaline pH. A variety of disease processes can result in the release of increased quantities of alkaline phosphatase into the blood.
 
Reference Value:
Sex Age Reference Value (Unit: U/L)
Male 1 - 12 years 0 - 500
12 - 15 years 0 - 750
15 - 20 years 0 - 390
>20 years 38 - 126
Female 1 - 12 years 0 - 500
12 - 15 years 0 - 187
>15 years 38 -126
 
Interpretation:
Increases in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity commonly originate from 1 or both of 2 sources: liver and bone. Consequently, serum ALP measurements are of particular interest in the investigation of 2 groups of conditions: hepatobiliary disease and bone disease associated with increased osteoblastic activity.

Serum ALP was the first enzyme to be used for the investigation of hepatic disease. The response of the liver to any form of biliary tree obstruction induces the synthesis of ALP by hepatocytes. The newly formed coenzyme is released from the cell membrane by the action of bile salts and enters the circulation to increase the enzyme activity in serum. Increase tends to be more notable (greater than 4-fold the upper reference value [URV]) in extrahepatic obstruction (eg, by stone, by cancer of the head of the pancreas) than in intrahepatic obstruction, and is greater the more complete the obstruction. Serum enzyme activities may reach 10 to 12 times the URV and usually return to baseline on surgical removal of the obstruction. A similar increase is seen in patients with advanced primary liver cancer or widespread secondary hepatic metastases. ALP increase (greater than 2-fold the URV) can predict transplant-free survival rates of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. 

Liver diseases that principally affect parenchymal cells, such as infectious hepatitis, typically show only moderately (less than 3-fold) increased or even normal serum ALP activities. Increases may also be seen as a consequence of a reaction to drug therapy, and ALT/ALP-based criteria to discriminate the type of liver injury in drug-induced hepatic toxicity have been recommended. Intestinal ALP isoenzyme, an asialoglycoprotein normally cleared by the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors, is often increased in patients with liver cirrhosis.
 
Clinical Reference:
  1. Manufacturer’s reagent package insert, Architect® Alkaline Phosphatase, ABBOTT Laboratories, Abbott Park IL 60064 USA, October 2015.
  2. www.mayomedicallaboratories.com (Retrieved: 01 Jan 2019)