Some eye disorders may have no symptoms in their early stages. The goal of eye screening is to look for common eye disorders and other conditions that are rarer but serious enough to lead to vision loss, such as eye tumors. Furthermore, eye abnormalities can indicate other health problems, such as hypertension or diabetes.

Generally, it is recommended that adults over 40 years of age undergo an eye screening even if they have no other risk factors since many common eye disorders or eye changes occur during this time.

The Frequency of Eye Screening
Frequency of eye screening depends on the risk factors of each individual, including:
  • Preexisting health conditions, such as diabeteshypertension, AIDS, or sickle cell anemia
  • History of eye disorders, such as retinal detachment, eye injury, or loss of vision in one or both eyes
  • Family history of eye disorders, such as glaucoma or macular degeneration
  • Work that involves intense eye use
  • Usage of medications that affects the eyes
  • Wearing contact lenses
Age Examination Intervel
Risk Free At Risk
Birth to 24 Months At 6 months of age At 6 months of age or as recommended
2 to 5 years At 3 years of age At 3 years of age or as recommended
6 to 18 years Before first grade and every
two years thereafter
Annually or as recommended
18 to 60 years every two years  Every one to two years or as recommended
61 and older Annually Annually or as recommended

*Risk Factors
  • Preexisting health conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, AIDS or sickle cell anemia.
  • History of eye disorders, such as retinal detachment, eye injury or loss of vision in one or both eyes.
  • Family history of eye disorders, such as glaucoma or macular degeneration.
  • African descent and older than 20 years of age.
  • Work that involves intense eye use.
  • Usage of medication that affects the eyes.
  • Wearing contact lenses.
  • General eye exam.
  • Visual acuity test to test sharpness of vision by reading numbers or letters.
  • Detection for color blindness.
  • Intraocular pressure measurement exam, as low or high eye pressure can indicate certain eye disorders, such as glaucoma.
  • Corneal curvature measurement via auto keratometer, as some disorders are characterized by abnormal corneal curvature and can lead to vision loss.

complete-eye-examination keratocunus
  • Refractive errors exam via autorefraction.
  • Retina and macula exam via fundus camera.
complete-eye-examination-Diabetic retinopathy
  • Exam of shape and appearance of the front of the eye, including cornea, iris and anterior chamber angle via anterior segment OTC. Certain abnormalities may indicate risk for eye disorders. For example, if the angle of the eye is quite narrow or closed, the person may be at risk of developing acute glaucoma.
complete-eye-examination close angle glaucoma
  • Measure retinal thickness and detection of retinal damage via posterior segment OTC.
  • Visual field exam to detect dysfunction in central and peripheral vision. For example, early stage glaucoma affects the peripheral vision with no symptoms. The visual field test can show the abnormality in early stages. Furthermore, examination of visual field can indicate abnormalities in the brain that affect vision.

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