Hypertension is a risk factor for kidney disease, stroke, paralysis, palsy, and heart disease. Hypertension is referred to as a “silent killer” as there are often no outward symptoms. The only way to know you have hypertension is by seeing your health care provider and monitoring your blood pressure.

Hypertension category










Check blood pressure regularly





Check blood pressure regularly

High blood pressure




See doctor

Stage 1 hypertension




See doctor

Stage 2 hypertension




See doctor immediately

  • Severe chest pain
  • Heart palpitations
  • Easily fatigued
  • Sudden headache with vomiting
  • One-sided weakness of arm and/or leg, even if for a short period and it disappears on its own
  • One-sided vision loss, even if temporary
  1. Weight: Maintain a healthy weight.
  2. DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)
  3. Exercise for the hypertensive patient
  • Avoid eating saturated animal fats (butter, cheese, and certain processed meats), reduce total fat consumption and limit cholesterol to no more than 300 milligrams per day.
  • Eat more vegetables and fruits at every meal (to increase fiber up to 25-35 grams per day).
  • Avoid salty foods to limit sodium intake to no more than 2,400 milligrams a day (one teaspoon of salt or one tablespoon of fish sauce/soy sauce). Your blood pressure will be better controlled if you can    limit the amount of sodium intake to 1,500 milligrams per day.
  • Drink low-fat milk for calcium.
  • Limit carbohydrates, such as bread and rice, and opt for healthier options like whole wheat bread and brown rice.
  • Choose dry beans as a source of magnesium.
Warning signs during exercise that should prompt you to see doctor and must not be ignored.
  • Easily fatigued or increased weakness.
  • Pulse that is too fast or slow or abnormal pulse.
  • Chest discomfort or chest pain.
  • Exercise should be done under doctor’s supervision in order to assess physical condition, foresee possible complications, and include follow-up visits for results and educating patient about warning signs. If you are not at risk, your doctor will allow you to do exercise at home and schedule follow-up appointment to evaluate the exercise result.
  • Focus on aerobic exercise i.e. jogging, walking, and swimming, to maintain physical fitness.
  • Exercise regularly 5-7 times per week, for a period of 30-60 minutes each time. If you have not exercised for a while, start gently and gradually increase duration when exercise is resumed.
Medication(s) should be used together with changes of lifestyle in order to achieve the goal of treatment.
Medications for hypertension
  • Take your medication regularly at the same time everyday.
  • Do not discontinue hypertension medicines unless ordered by your doctor, as it increases risk of complications, e.g. acute hypertension.
  • Do not reduce or increase dosage unless ordered by your doctor as it increases risk of hypertension or hypotension.
  • Do not forget to take your medication.
    • If you forget to take a single dose, please take it when you remember. You can take the next dose as scheduled.
    • If you forget to take two doses of medication within 12 hours, please take one dose when you remember. If it exceeds 12 hours and it is almost time for the next dose, you can resume the next dose as scheduled.
  • In order to keep your blood pressure under control you need to take your medications together with managing all the risk factors, such as diet, exercise and smoking cessation.
  • Avoid taking herbs or other supplements as it might lead to ineffective blood pressure control or adverse reactions.
  • Consult doctor or pharmacist before taking any medicines
Avoid smoking
Alcohol consumption
Stop alcoholic consumption or limit the amount to no more than 60 milliliters of liquor, 240 milliliters of wine or 720 milliliters (two cans) of beer for men. For women, the amount should be half of the recommended amount for men.
Blood test to determine other risks e.g. high cholesterol
Control and treat other diseases, especially diabetes and high cholesterol 
Stress management
  • Learn ways to relax.
  • Get plenty of sleep and rest.
  • Take some time for yourself each day.
Short-term goal
  • Control blood pressure to <140/90 mmHg for patient without any other complications
  • Control blood pressure to <140/80 mmHg for patient with diabetes or chronic kidney disease
Long-term goal
  • Prevent complications and improve quality of life

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