Physical reconstruction surgery – male to female


Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS)

This surgery reshapes bones and soft tissues so that the face appears more feminine. The surgeon will consider the proportional balance of the face and facial tissues prior to surgery. This facial feminization reconstructive surgery may be a single procedure or multi-staged concerning the following eight facial features:

  • Forehead feminization surgery  
    The aim is to achieve a feminine, plump, full, rounded, smooth and beautifully proportioned forehead.
  • Eyebrow feminization surgery
    Men's eyebrows are thick, straight, and at the level of the brow bone or lower, while women’s are thin, arched, and over the brow bone. In feminizing surgery, the eyebrows are lifted and arched. They are then trimmed to get a more feminine look.
  • Nose Feminization Surgery
    Three approaches are available:
    • Reduction rhinoplasty, reducing the nostril base, the nasal bridge and the nasal tip
    • Augmentation rhinoplasty, increasing the projection of the nasal bridge with such materials as ePTFE, silicone, and cartilage or bone grafts
    • Combined techniques of reduction rhinoplasty and augmentation rhinoplasty
  • Combined techniques of reduction rhinoplasty and augmentation rhinoplasty
  • Eye feminization surgery
  • Lip feminization surgery
    Three approaches are available:
    • the upper lip lift
    • lip enhancement to make lips look fuller
    • Lip reshaping/reduction for a feminine look 
  • Tracheal shave
    This is a surgery to reduce the prominence of the Adam's Apple, to improve the neck appearance. Two approaches are available:
    • The open technique, where an external incision is made under the chin to hide the potential scar.
    • The endoscopic technique uses a scope, a flexible tube with a camera and light at the tip, to perform an intra-oral surgery done under general anesthesia. While more difficult than an open wound surgery and requiring a highly skilled specialist, an advantage is that it produces no external scars.
  • Chin and jaw reduction surgery 
    This is to adjust the chin size and shape and make the jaw line less angular for a more balanced facial shape.

Voice feminization therapy and voice feminization surgery

With the vocal fold surgery the patient will get a higher vocal pitch. With an endoscopic surgery, the  surgeon, an ENT specialist, will shorten the vocal cords considering the three main factors affecting the vocal pitch:

  • Vocal cord length 
  • Vocal cord tension 
  • Vocal cord masses


Feminine Breast Augmentation

This surgery aims to increase the breast size involving breast implants or fat transfer injections in one breast or both.

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