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Test Code:
SOD

Order Name:
Sodium

 
Useful For:
Sodium assays are important in assessing acid-base balance, water balance, water intoxication, and dehydration.
 
Methodology:
Ion-selective electrode diluted (Indirect)
 
AliasesName:
Na+ (Sodium), Blood
 
 
 
Test Code:
SOD

Order Name:
Sodium

 
Collection Specimen Or Container:
Blood/ Plain blood (Red top) 6 mL, 1 tube
 
Specimen Testing Type:
Serum, minimum volume 0.5 mL
 
Sub Mission Container:
Plastic vial
 
Rejection Criteria:
Hemolysis: 4+ reject 
 
Specimen Stabillity:
Specimen Type Temperature Time
Serum Refrigerated, 2oC to 8oC 14 days
Frozen, -20o 12 months
 
 
 
Test Code:
SOD

Order Name:
Sodium

 
Method detail:
Ion-selective electrode diluted (Indirect)
 
Schedule:
Tested daily (24 hours)
 
Turnaround Time:
Collected specimen to report within 1.5 hours (90 mins)
 
Performing Location:
Chemistry, Laboratory Department Tel. 13224
 
Specimen Retention Time:
5 days
 
 
 
Test Code:
SOD

Order Name:
Sodium

 
 
Clinical Information:
Sodium is the primary extracellular cation. Sodium is responsible for almost one half the osmolality of the plasma and therefore plays a central role in maintaining the normal distribution of water and the osmotic pressure in the extracellular fluid compartment. The amount of sodium in the body is a reflection of the balance between sodium intake and output.

Hyponatremia (low sodium) is a predictable consequence of decreased intake of sodium, particularly that precipitated or complicated by unusual losses of sodium from the gastrointestinal tract (eg, vomiting and diarrhea), kidneys or sweat glands. Renal loss may be caused by inappropriate choice, dose or use of diuretics; by primary or secondary deficiency of aldosterone and other mineralocorticoids; or by severe polyuria. It is common in metabolic acidosis. Hyponatremia also occurs in nephrotic syndrome, hypoproteinemia, primary and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency and congestive heart failure. Symptoms of hyponatremia are a result of brain swelling and range from weakness to seizures, coma and death.

Hypernatremia (high sodium) is often attributable to excessive loss of sodium-poor body fluids. Hypernatremia is often associated with hypercalcemia and hypokalemia and is seen in liver disease, cardiac failure, pregnancy, burns, and osmotic diuresis. Other causes include decreased production of ADH or decreased tubular sensitivity to the hormone (ie, diabetes insipidus), inappropriate forms of parenteral therapy with saline solutions, or high salt intake without corresponding intake of water. Hypernatremia occurs in dehydration, increased renal sodium conservation in hyperaldosternism, Cushing's syndrome, and diabetic acidosis. Severe hypernatremia may be associated with volume contraction, lactic acidosis and increased hematocrit. Symptoms of hypernatremia range from thirst to confusion, irritability, seizures, coma and death.
 
Reference Value:
136 –145 mmol/L
 
Interpretation:
Symptoms of hyponatremia depend primarily upon the rate of change in sodium concentration, rather than the absolute level. Typically, sodium values <120 mEq/L result in weakness; values <100 mEq/L in bulbar or pseudobulbar palsy; and values between 90 and 105 mEq/L in severe signs and symptoms of neurological impairment.
Symptoms associated with hypernatremia depend upon the degree of hyperosmolality present.
 
Clinical Reference:
  1. Manufacturer’s reagent package insert, Architect® ICT (Na+, K+, Cl-) Sample Diluent, Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Abbott Park IL 60064 , May 2016.
  2. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com (Retrieved: 01 Jan 2019)