Clinical Information (ข้อมูลทางคลินิก):
Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), also called Hughes syndrome, is an autoimmune disease which is characterised by thrombophilia. Cumulative haematological signs are mainly venous (37%) or arterial (27-49%) thrombosis, haemocytopenia (30-38%), pregnancy complications (55-74%), neurological failures (66%) and cardiological (27%), pulmonary (20-30%) or cutaneous (40%) tissue damage due to the above-mentioned circulatory disorders.
APS is an immunocoagulopathy and the most frequently acquired hypercoagulability. 82% of APS
patients are women and 18% men. Around 10% of APS cases are familial. APS is divided into primary APS (pAPS) and secondary APS (sAPS). These are characterised by the same haematological immune responses. In sAPS, however, they occur during the course of the disease as secondary reactions, most frequently in connection with rheumatic diseases (e.g. SLE).
According to the "International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 2006 " the presence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies is a serological criterion in APS diagnostics. ACA have a high prevalence of 60 to 90% (ACA-IgG 44%, ACA-IgM 12%, ACA IgG/IgM 88%) and persist for more than 12 weeks in APS patients. ACA can be found in the serum of 15 to 30% of sAPS patients. In persons with thrombosis in their anamnesis the prevalence is 20% to 30%.